|Mille regretz||Josquin des Prés (c 1450-1521)|
| Mille regretz de vous abandonner
Et d'eslonger vostre fache amoureuse,
Jay si grand dueil et paine douloureuse,
Quon me verra brief mes jours definer.
|A thousand regrets at deserting you
and leaving behind your loving face,
I feel so much sadness and such painful distress,
that it seems to me my days will soon dwindle away.
|Missa Mille regretz: Kyrie||Cristobal de Morales (c 1500-1553)|
| Kyrie eleison.
|Lord, have mercy on us.
Christ, have mercy on us.
Lord, have mercy on us.
|Ave Maria||Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548-1611)|
| Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum.
Benedicta tu in mulieribus,
et benedictus fructus ventris tui, Jesus Christus.
|Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee:
Blessed art thou amongst women,
and blessed is the fruit of thy womb Jesus.
| Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatoribus,
nunc et in hora mortis nostrae. Amen.
|Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners,
Now and in the hour of our death. Amen.
|Domine, tu jurasti||William Byrd (1543-1623)|
| Domine, tu jurasti patribus nostris,
daturum te semini eorum,
terram fluentem lacte et melle,
nunc Domine, memor esto testamenti,
quod posuisti patribus nostris,
et erue nos de manu Pharaonis, regis Ægipti,
ex et servitute Ægiptiorum.
|O Lord, thou didst swear to our fathers,
you would give to their seed,
a land flowing with milk and honey;
now, O Lord, be thou mindful of the covenant
which Thou hast made to our fathers,
and deliver us from the hand of Pharaoh, king of Egypt,
and from the bondage of the Egyptians.
|Exultate Justi in Domino (Psalm 33)||Lodovico Grossi da Viadana (1564-1627)|
| Exsultate justi in Domino;
rectos decet collaudatio.
|Rejoice in the Lord, O ye righteous;
praise befits the upstanding.
| Confitemi Domino in cithara;
in psalterio decem chordarum psallite illi.
|Give praise to the Lord on the lyre;
sing to him with the psaltery, the instrument of ten strings.
| Cantate ei canticum novum;
bene psallite ei in vociferatione.
|Sing to him a new canticle,
sing well unto him with a lusty voice.
|Ecce Vidimus Eum (Response for Holy Thursday)||Carlo Gesualdo di Venosa (1561-1613)|
| Ecce vidimus eum non habentem speciem, neque decorem:
Aspectus ejus in eo non est:
Hic peccata nostra portavit, et pro nobis dolet:
Ipse autem vulneratus est, propter iniquitates nostras:
Cujus livore sanati sumus.
Vere languores nostros ipse tulit et dolores nostros ipse portavit.
|Behold we shall see him having neither form nor comeliness:
There is no beauty in him.
This is he who has borne our sins and suffered for us.
He was bruised for our iniquities,
and with his stripes we are healed.
Truly he has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows.
|Or, sus serviteurs du Seigneur (Psalm 134)||Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (1562-1621)|
| Or sus, serviteurs du Seigneur
Vous qui, de nuit en son honneur,
Dedans sa maison le servez,
Louez-le et son nom élevez.
|Behold, and have regard,
Ye servants of the Lord,
Who in his house by night do watch,
Praise him with one accord.
| Levez les mains au plus haut lieu
De ce très saint temple de Dieu
Et le los qu'il a mérité
Soit par vos bouches récité.
|Lift up your hands on high,
Unto his holy place.
And give the Lord his praises due,
His benefits embrace.
| Dieu qui a fait et entretient
Et terre et ciel par son pouvoir,
Du mont Sion où il se tient
Ses biens te fasse apercevoir.
|For why? the Lord our God
Who heav'n and earth did frame.
Doth Zion bless, and will preserve
For evermore the same.
|Tanzen und Springen||Hans Leo Hassler (1564-1612)|
| Tanzen und springen, Singen und klingen, fa la la....
Lauten und Geigen Soll'n auch nicht schweigen,
Zu musizieren und jubilieren
Steht mir all mein Sinn. Fa la la la....
|Dancing and jumping, singing and sounding, fa la la....
Lutes and fiddles should also not stay silent.
To make music and rejoice
is all my sense. Fa la la la....
| Schöne Jungfrauen In grünen Auen, fa la la....
Mit ihn'n spazieren Und konversieren,
Freundlich zu scherzen Freut mich im Herzen
Für Silber und Gold. Fa la la la....
|Beautiful young women in green meadows, fa la la....
with them to walk and talk,
to have a friendly joke, makes me happy in the heart
more than silver and gold. Fa la la la....
|Singet dem Herrn (Psalm 98)||Heinrich Schütz (1585-1672)|
| Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied,
denn er tut Wunder.
Er sieget mit seiner Rechten
und mit seinem heilgen Arm.
|O sing unto the Lord a new song;
for he hath done marvelous things:
his right hand, and his holy arm,
hath gotten him the victory.
| Der Herr lässet sein Heil verkündigen;
Vor den Völkern läßt er seine Gerechtigkeit offenbaren.
|The Lord hath made known his salvation:
his righteousness hath he openly shewed in the sight of the heathen.
| Er gedenket an seine Gnade
und Wahrheit dem Hause Israel.
Aller Welt Enden sehen das Heil unsers Gottes.
|He hath remembered his mercy
and his truth toward the house of Israel:
all the ends of the earth have seen the salvation of our God.
| Jauchzet dem Herren, alle Welt;
singet, rühmet und lobet!
Lobet den Herren mit Harfen,
mit Harfen und Psalmen!
Mit Drommeten und Posaunen
jauchzet vor dem Herrn, dem Könige!
|Make a joyful noise unto the Lord, all the earth:
make a loud noise, and rejoice, and sing praise.
Sing unto the Lord with the harp;
with the harp, and the voice of a psalm.
With trumpets and sound of cornet
make a joyful noise before the Lord, the King.
| Das Meer brause und was drinnen ist,
der Erdboden und die drauf wohnen.
Die Wasserströme frohlocken,
und alle Berge sind fröhlich vor dem Herrn;
|Let the sea roar, and the fullness thereof;
the world, and they that dwell therein.
Let the floods clap their hands:
let the hills be joyful together before the Lord;
| denn er kömmt, das Erdreich zu richten.
Er wird den Erdboden richten mit Gerechtigkeit
und die Völker mit Recht.
|for he cometh to judge the earth:
with righteousness shall he judge the world,
and the people with equity.
| Ehre sei dem Vater und dem Sohn
und auch dem Heiligen Geiste,
wie es war im Anfang, jetzt und immerdar
und von Ewigkeit zu Ewigkeit. Amen.
|Glory be to the Father and the Son
and the Holy Spirit,
As it was in the beginning, it is now and ever shall be,
world without end. Amen
|Nun danket alle Gott||Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706)|
text: c 1636 Martin Rinkart (1586-1649)
| Nun danket alle Gott,
der große Dinge tut an allen Enden;
der uns von Mutter Leibe an lebendig erhält
und tut uns alles Guts.
|Now thank we all our God
for all his boundless goodness.
who from our mother's womb has blessed us on our way
and showers us with His gifts.
| Er gebe uns ein fröhlich Herz
und verleihe immerdar Friede,
Friede zu Unsern Zeiten in Israel,
und daß seine Gnade stets bei uns bleibe
und erlöse uns, solange wir leben.
|God, make our hearts joyful
and give us peace forever.
peace in our times in Israel,
and let your grace be ever with us
and give us salvation so long as we live.
| Nun danket alle Gott mit Herzen, Mund und Händen,
der große Dinge tut an uns und allen Enden,
der uns von Mutterleib und Kindesbeinen an
unzählig viel zu gut und noch jetzund getan.
|Now thank we all our God with heart, mouth and hands,
for all His goodness to us and to all.
who from our mother's womb and from our childhood
has showered us without ceasing with countless gifts
he still grants us today.
|Lobet den Herrn, alle Heiden (BWV 230)||Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)|
| Lobet den Herrn, alle Heiden,
und preiset ihn, alle Völker!
Denn seine Gnade und Wahrheit
waltet über uns in Ewigkeit.
|Praise the Lord, all the heathens
And celebrate him, all the peoples!
For his grace and truth
Reign over us for ever.
|O Heiland, reiss die Himmel auf (Opus 74 No. 2)||Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)|
text: Friedrich Spee von Langenfeld (1591-1635)
| O Heiland, reiß die Himmel auf,
Herab, herab, vom Himmel lauf!
Reiß ab vom Himmel Tor uns Tür,
Reiß ab, wo Schloß und Riegel für!
|The wall of Heav'n, O Saviour, rend!
Arise and haste from end to end;
each heav'nly gate and door unbar;
Undo what locks and bolts there are!
| O Gott, ein' Tau vom Himmel gieß;
Im Tau herab, o Heiland, fließ.
Ihr Wolken, brecht und regnet aus
Den König über Jakobs Haus.
|O God, pour down celestial dew;
And in this gift Thyself imbue,
Ye clouds, burst forth in fertile showers,
And bring the King to Jacob's towers!
| O Erd', schlag aus, schlag aus, o Erd',
Daß Berg und Tal grün alles werd'
O Erd', herfür dies Blümlein bring,
O Heiland, aus der Erden spring.
|O earth, produce,
That mount and vale show verdant birth,
O earth, for this thy blossoms bring;
O Saviour from the dark soil spring!
| Hie leiden wir die größte Not,
Vor Augen steht der bittre Tod;
Ach komm, führ uns mit starker Hand
Vom Elend zu dem Vaterland.
|We suffer here the direst woe;
Before our eyes waits Death, our foe;
O come, lead us with mighty hand,
From sorrow to the Fatherland!
| Da wollen wir all' danken dir,
Unserm Erlöser, für und für.
Da wollen wir all' loben dich
Je allzeit immer und ewiglich.
|Then will we thank Thee o'er and o'er,
Our dear Redeemer evermore,
Then will we give Thee heartfelt praise,
Forever through endless days.
|Sing to the Lord
Traditional tune Dunlap's Creek
|Arranged by Alice Parker (1925-)|
text: Isaac Watts (1674-1748)
| Sing to the Lord, ye heavenly hosts,
And thou, O earth, adore,
Let death and hell thro' all their coasts,
Stand trembling at his power.
| His sounding chariot shakes the sky,
He makes the clouds his throne,
There all his stores of lightning lie,
Till vengeance dart them down.
| His nostrils breathe out fiery streams,
And from his awful tongue
A sovereign voice divides the flames,
And thunder roars along.
| Think, O my soul, the dreadful day
When this incensed God
Shall rend the sky, and burn the sea,
And fling his wrath abroad.
| Let all that dwell above the sky,
And air and earth and seas
Conspire to lift thy glories high
And speak Thine endless praise.
| The whole creation join in one
To bless the sacred Name,
Of Him that sits upon the throne,
And to adore the Lamb.
|Praise God from Whom All Blessings Flow
Lowell Mason's Boston Handel and Haydn Society, 1830
|Arranged by Joseph Barlowe|
text: Thomas Ken (1637-1711)
| Praise God from whom all blessing flow;
Praise Him all creatures here below.
Praise him above, ye heav'nly host.
Praise Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
|The AD HOC Singers|
Louise Lee is a graduate of Smith College and Indiana University, where she received a Master of Music degree in organ performance, studying with Oswald Ragatz. Ms. Lee performs frequently as a piano accompanist. She is organist at Arlington Forest United Methodist Church. Ms. Lee has directed the Ad Hoc Singers since she founded the group in 1975.
The Ad Hoc Singers, an amateur chamber chorus devoted to traditional choral literature from the fifteenth through the twentieth centuries, has been in existence under the direction of Louise Lee since 1975. They perform regularly at churches and other locations throughout the area. Good sight readers interested in joining the group should call 703-538-2557 to set up an audition, or speak with Ms. Lee after the concert.
Thank you to Karen Lee, Bonnie Temple, and Brent Chivers for their work on the program.
The term “motet” for a vocal composition was derived from the French “mot”, for “word”. In early 13th century Paris, liturgical music was based on plainchant, with some voices harmonizing on long vowel syllables; the composers Leonin and Perotin at Notre Dame Cathedral added words to these upper voices and the result came to be known as “motets”; eventually the term came to mean a choral work often with four or more voice parts and often with instruments; the sung texts were ones not part of core elements of the Roman liturgy (mainly the Mass). Motet texts were frequently from Psalms, hymns, and prayers, and eventually included some original texts by their composers, though these were usually closely linked to Biblical sources.
Josquin des Préz was born c. 1450 in the province of Hainaut, the present-day border of France and Belgium. This region was dominated by French culture. Josquin was revered in his own and following generations for his large output of Masses, motets, and secular “chansons”, of which we have more than fifty.
Trends during the fifteenth century included a deepening of sonorities; there was more writing for low voices, whereas church music, especially, seems to have previously made use of falsetto. Thus Christobal Morales created his Mass on “Mille Regretz” for six parts ranging from treble, sung by boys, through several alto, tenor, and bass parts all in the range of adult male voices. Only male singers performed in church choirs. (All-female convent choirs were an exception.) Adaptation of these low-voice works for today's mixed-voice choirs is done with varying success.
An interesting, though perhaps far-fetched idea was put forth by Paul Henry Lang, in his “Music in Western Civilization”, who suggested that the growing use of more and deeper voice parts in Renaissance music perhaps corresponded to the new-found use of perspective in visual art.
Morales' Mass uses the tune of Josquin's chanson as a basis for flowing musical lines, each imitating another in turn, a style honed by Josquin himself in his own Masses and other works, and increasingly known as the “Netherlands” style. The practice of using a non-religious melody as the musical theme for sacred works like Masses and motets became very popular in the sixteenth century. Earlier composers had used Gregorian chant as a foundation for polyphonic music. As polyphonic works grew more elaborate it still seemed necessary to have a pre-existing melody unite the composition; now, however, it was not so much a spiritual focus but merely provided a musical frame, a kind of scaffolding. Using a secular tune in this way was not considered inappropriate, probably because boundaries in daily life between secular and sacred were not at all rigid. If anything, the tune was ennobled by its use in a Mass or motet, whose composer may have been honoring his predecessor's melody, as in the case of Morales and Josquin.
Morales was born in Seville, Spain, around 1500. He served as choirmaster at the Cathedral of Avila, then as a singer in the Papal Chapel at Rome. He eventually returned to Spain and worked at the cathedral in Toledo and in two other cities. His work has lyrical, expressive qualities. It has been noted that in a later section of the Missa Mille Regretz – the Crucifixus section of the Credo – the part of the “Mille Regretz” melody which speaks of “much pain” is used, and that it may not be mere coincidence.
Thomas Luis da Victoria, born in Avila in 1548, was the greatest Spanish composer of the High Renaissance. He, like Morales, went to Rome, where he served as organist-choirmaster at several churches, but ultimately returned to Spain. While in Rome he was ordained as a priest. Later he entered the service of the Empress Maria and her daughter in Spain; they entered a convent in Madrid in 1584 and Victoria went with them to serve as musician and priest until his death.
Throughout the 16th century there was continuous cross-pollination between other European countries and Italy, center of the great Papal establishment with its fabled choirs.
In motets by the great Elizabethan English composer William Byrd and the Italian Carlo Gesualdo the full extent of emotive possibilities are realized. Byrd's text is not liturgical or even a direct quote from the Bible. “Domine tu jurasti” was published in 1589. Byrd, caught in the middle between his Catholic origin and the Anglican reforms taking place, more than once alluded in his chosen texts to themes of exile and persecution.
Gesualdo was born and died at Naples. He married Eleanora d'Este and settled at Ferrara, a great cultural center. His work is notable for its extreme chromatic harmony. [His life had its own lurid element – he murdered his wife, her lover, and an infant whose paternity he questioned.] Ecce Vidimus Eum was published in 1611.
Ludovico Viadana was maestro from 1594-1609 at the Cathedral of Saint Peter in Mantua. His “Cento Concerti Eccesiastici” was published in 1602 at Venice, where the architecture of Saint Mark's Cathedral inspired placement of multiple choirs and instrumental ensembles so as to perform alternately and together, producing a grand effect. Motets in this style had come to be known as “Concerti”.
Viadana is notable in music history for writing down independent parts for a keyboard instrument to play with the voices, instead of simply doubling the lowest voice or improvising an accompaniment over a bass line. In some of his work the keyboard part is definitely necessary; in others, like “Exultate Justi” the choral composition seems complete without keyboard.
Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck was trained as organist and composer in Italy, but worked chiefly as an organist and far-famed teacher of organists (he was known as “maker of organists”) in Amsterdam. His settings of the Huguenot Psalter (His four-part “Or Sus” was published in 1614.) to some degree accord with the restraints John Calvin imposed on music for his followers in Protestantism. But being at a safe remove in time, Sweelinck and others who wrote choral Psalm settings for the Reformed church were able to bring their artistic inventiveness to the task. The chordal harmony is simple, but the Psalm tune, which we have come to associate with the 100th Psalm, is taken up by each voice part in turn, while the others decorate it. It is constructed much like an organ chorale prelude, and can be played as one.
Hans Leo Hassler was born in Nuremburg, Germany. He too traveled to Italy as a young man to study. He was sponsored by the wealthy Fugger family of Augsburg, who employed him as a chamber musician. He was drawn to folk music and simple dance-like secular songs, and wrote similar compositions, some in Italian and some in German, which we might today call “madrigals”, after their English counterparts.
The German Heinrich Schütz studied as a very young man with Giovanni Gabrieli in Venice, and adopted the grand polychoral Venetian style in his Psalmen Davids (1619). Also in those early years in Italy he published madrigals, though not the “fa la” type. They were settings of Italian poetry about love and loss, and it was the custom to “paint” word pictures with musical motifs to illustrate the sense of the poetry. Both Schütz's madrigals and his sacred music use this technique; it enlivens his Psalm settings with drama, as the seas roll, trumpets play, and so forth.
In Pachelbel's Nun Danket Alle Gott, the unifying tune is a German chorale melody. The Lutheran Reformation of the early sixteenth century had produced many new melodies as well as resurrecting old ones that could be sung with German words, though parts of the Protestant services remained in Latin. Unlike the early followers of Calvin, the Lutherans reveled in producing music for worship, urged on by their leader. Martin Luther, himself a composer, assembled eminent musicians to find or write tunes for singing, and these became the inspiration for increasingly elaborate organ and choral works.
The great masters Bach and Brahms need no introduction. Bach wrote 7 motets, Brahms 13. Brahms' “O Heiland, Reiss die Himmel Auf” is written in a somewhat archaic contrapuntal style, more so than his other motets. He seems at times to be paying homage to Bach.
We close with music for early 19th-century America.
|Sources:||The Norton/Grove Concise Encyclopedia of Music|
|Reese:||Music in the Renaissance|
|Bukofzer:||Music in the Baroque|
|Lang:||Music in Western Civilization|
|Schweitzer:||J. S. Bach|
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