The AD HOC Singers

Louise Lee, Director

I Maestri delle Cappelle

with special guests
Gamaliel Rose, tenor
Douglas Wolters, 'cello
Hazel Cheilik, viola and violin
Jill Weston, oboe
Ed Kapusciarz, violin
Judy Thompson, violin
Ray Freeman, organ

Sunday, June 3, 2007
3:00 p.m.
St. Peter's Episcopal Church
Arlington, VA, USA

Nun Fanget an ein Guts Liedlein (1:17, 1.9 mb)Hans Leo Hassler (1564–1612)
Nun fanget an ein guts Liedlein zu singen;
lasst Instrument und Lauten auch erklingen.
Lieblich zu musizieren, will sich jetzund gebühren:
drum schlagt und singt, dass all's erklingt,
helft unser fest auch zieren.
And now, start up a jolly song.
Let lutes and other instruments ring out.
It is fitting to make pleasant music,
So play out and sing till the rafters ring,
And thus enliven our festivities.

Laudete Nomen Domini (3:48, 5.5 mb)Christopher Tye (c1500–1572)
Laudate nomen Domini, vos servi Domini,
ab ortu solis usque ad occasum ejus.
Decreta Dei justa sunt, et cor exhilarant.
Laudate Deum, principes et omnes populi.
Praise ye the Name of the Lord, all His servants;
His name be praised from morn to night.
His laws are just and make glad the heart;
Praise the Lord, princes and peoples.
O Come, ye servants of the Lord, And praise His holy Name;
From early morn to setting sun, His might on earth proclaim.
His laws are just, and glad the heart; He makes his Mercies known:
Ye princes come, ye people too, And bow before His Throne.
Motet "Surrexit paster bonus" (2:54, 4.2 mb)Orlando di Lasso (c1530–1594)
Surrexit pastor bonus,
qui animam suam posuit, pro ovibus suis,
et progrege suo, mori dignatus est. Alleluia.
The good shepherd has arisen,
who laid down his life for his sheep,
and who humbled himself to die for his flock. Alleluia.

Three movements from the Mass "Surrexit Pastor Bonus" Orlando di Lasso
Gloria (5:07, 7.4 mb)
Gloria in excelsis Deo.
Et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis.
Laudamus te. Benedicimus te.
Adoramus te. Glorificamus te.
Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam,
Domine Deus, Rex caelestis,
Deus Pater omnipotens.
Domine Fili unigenite Jesu Christe.
Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris,
Qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis.
Qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe deprecationem nostram.
Qui sedes ad dextram Patris, miserere nobis.
Quoniam tu solus sanctus. Tu solus Dominus,
Tu solus altissimus, Jesu Christe.
Cum Sancto Spiritu, In gloria Dei Patris

Glory to God in the highest
And on earth peace to men of good will.
We praise you. We bless you.
We adore you. We glorify you.
We give you thanks for your great glory
Lord God, king of heaven,
God the Father almighty,
Lord, only begotten Son, Jesus Christ
Lord God, lamb of God, Son of the Father
You who take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.
You who take away the sins of the world, receive our prayer.
You who sit at the right hand of the Father, have mercy on us.
For you only are holy. You only are Lord.
You only are most high, Jesus Christ.
With the Holy Spirit, in the glory of God the Father
Sanctus (3:35, 5.2 mb)
Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus
Dominus Deus Sabaoth.
Pleni sunt coeli et terra gloria tua.
Osanna in excelsis.

Holy, Holy, Holy
Lord God of Hosts,
The heavens and the earth are full of thy glory.
Hosanna in the highest.
Benedictus (2:53, 4.2 mb)
Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.
Osanna in excelsis.

Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord.
Hosanna in the highest.
Sonata for Three Violins and Continuo (6:42, 9.7 mb)Giovanni Gabrieli (c1553–1612)

Motet "Dic Nobis Maria" (1:54, 2.7 mb)Tomas Luis de Victoria (1548-1611)
Dic nobis Maria quid vidisti in via?
Sepulchrum Christi viventis; et gloriam vidi resurrgentis.
Angelicos testes, sudaruium, et vestes.
Surrexit Christus spes mea praecedet vos in Galilaeam.
Scimus Christum surrexisse a mortuis. A mortuis vere
Tu nobis victor Rex miserere. Alleluia.
Tell us Mary, what saw you on your way?
"The tomb of the living Christ, and the glory of his rising —
the testimony of the angels, the veil and the garments.
Christ my hope is risen and goes before you to Galilee."
We believe that Christ has surmounted death.
Triumphant King, grant us mercy. Alleluia.

Motet "O Jesu mi dulcissime" (7:44, 11.1 mb)Giovanni Gabrieli
O Jesu mi dulcissime, adoro te in stabulo commorantem.
O puer dilectissime, adoro te in praesepio, jacentem.
O Christe, rex piissime, adoramus te in feno cubantem,
in coelo fulgentem.
O mira Dei pietas. O singularis caritas, Christus datus est,
Jesus natus est, datus est a patre, natus est de virgine matre,
O divina ergo proles, te colimus hic homines,
ut veneremur, coelites.
O my sweetest Jesus, I adore thee, lying in the stable.
O most delightful boy, I adore thee, lying in the manger.
O Christ, most pious King, we adore thee, lying in the hay,
shining in the heavens.
O marvelous mercy of God, O wonderful Love, Christ is given,
Jesus is born, given by the Father, born of the Virgin Mother,
therefore O divine offspring, we here below tenderly care for thee,
that we may adore thee in Heaven.
Al naharót Bavél
(Psalm 137)
(4:05, 5.9 mb)
Salamone Rossi (c1570–1612)
Al naharót Bavél
sham yashávnu gam bachínu bezochréynu et Tsiyón.
Al aravím betochá talínu kinorotéynu.
Kisham sheelúnu shovéynu divreyshír
vetolaléynu simchá: shíru lánu mishír Tsiyón.
Eych nashír et shir Adonái al admát nechár?
Im eshkachéch Yerushaláyim tishkách yeminí,
tidbák leshoní lechikí im lo ezkeréychi,
im lo aalé et Yerushaláyim al rosh simchatí.
Zechór Adonái livnéy Edóm et yom Yerushaláyim,
haomerím: áru, áru, ad hayesód ba.
Bat Bavél hashedudá,
ashréy sheyeshalém lach et gemuléch shegamálte lánu.
Ashréy sheyochéz venipéts et olaláyich el hasála.
There by the streams we sat;
there in Babylon with weeping we remembered Israel.
Hanging our harps on the willows, we chanted our lamentation.
Our captors required us to sing them songs of joy,
and mocking us they did say: sing us songs of Jerusalem.
Who could sing the song of the Lord in a stranger's land?
Jerusalem, O holy city, I shall not forget.
Thy name shall remain on my tongue, else I shall be silent;
thy joy in my heart far above all others though thou art no more.
Remember, O Lord, the fatal day, Jerusalem's destruction,
and those who called: burn it, burn it, raze it to the ground.
Babylon, thou soon shalt fall.
Then joyful shall he be who repayeth thee for thy evil service.
With joy shall he take and then dash thy little children on the sharp rock.

Hear my prayer, O Lord (2:39, 3.8 mb)Henry Purcell (1659–1695)
Hear my prayer, O Lord, and let my crying come unto thee.

Sonata no. 4 for violin and continuo Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)
Siciliano (4:02, 5.8 mb)
Allegro (4:18, 6.2 mb)
Hazel Cheilik, violin and Louise Lee, Piano
Prelude to Suite no. 3 in C Major
for unaccompanied cello
(4:48, 6.9 mb)
J.S. Bach
Douglas Wolters, cello

Aus der Tiefe rufe ich, Herr, zu dir.
Cantata no.131 (Psalm 130)
J.S. Bach
Chorus: (8:30, 12.7 mb)
Aus der Tiefe, rufe ich, Herr, zu Dir.
Herr, Herr, höre meine stimme;
Lass deine Ohren merken auf
die Stimme meines Flehens!
Out of the deep I cry to you
O Lord, Lord, hear my voice;
Let your ears be attentive to
The voices of my complaint!

So du willst, Herr, sünde zurechnen,
Herr, wer wird bestehen?
Denn bei dir ist die Vergebung,
Dass man dich fürchte.
If you, Lord, mark every sin,
who can withstand?
But you have the power of forgiveness,
so that man may fear you.
with Chorale:
Er barm' dich mein in solcher Last
nimm sie aus meinem Herzen,
dieweil du sie gebüsset hast
am Holz mit Todesschmerzen
auf dass ich nicht mit grossem Weh
in meinen Sünden untergeh',
Noch ewiglich verzage.
Have pity on my great distress;
Lift it from my heart.
For you have suffered
the pain of death
so that I may not,
in deep despair,
forever languish for my sins.
Solo: Maurice Singer, baritone

Chorus: (3:41, 5.3 mb)
Ich harre des Herrn, meine Seele harret,
Und ich hoffe auf sein Wort.
I wait for the Lord, my soul waits
and I hope in his word,

Solo: (6:31, 9.4 mb)
Meine Seele wartet auf den Herrn
von einer Morgenwache bis zu der andern.
My soul waits for the Lord
from one morning watch to another.
with Chorale:
Und weil ich denn in meinem Sinn,
wie ich zuvor geklaget
Auch ein betrübter Sünder bin,
den sein Gewissen naget,
und wollte gern im Blute dein
von Sünden abgewaschen sein
wie David und Manasse.
And though my troubled spirit
long cried out
I remain a sinner;
and yearn,
by thy blood,
to be washed free
as David and Manassah.
Solo: Gamaliel Rose, tenor

Chorus: (4:31, 6.5 mb)
Israel, Israel, Israel,
Hoffe auf den Herrn;
denn bei dem Herrn ist die Gnade
und viel Erlösung, bei ihm.
Und er wird Israel erlösen
aus allen seinen sünden.
Israel, Israel, Israel
hope in the Lord.
For with the Lord is mercy
and plenteous redemption,
and he will redeem Israel
from all her sins.
Soloists: Maurice Singer, baritone; Gamaliel Rose, tenor
Orchestra: Jim Moseley Jill Weston, oboe
Ed Kapusciarz and Judy Thompson, violins
Hazel Cheilik, viola, Douglas Wolters, cello
Ray Freeman, organ


Much of the information in the following program notes is taken from the Norton Encyclopedia of Music, Stanley Sadie, editor of the second edition. We can begin with some definitions: MaestroMaster – "may refer to a virtuoso, a teacher, an instrument maker, a conductor or leader of an ensemble." The composers on our program were most, if not all, of the above. "Maestro di cappella, maestro de capilla (Spanish), maître de chapelle (French), and Kapellmeister (German) – the musician in charge of a musical establishment, sacred, secular or both... "The term chapel "... not only a place of worship or the clerics associated with it but also a salaried group of musicians who served an ecclesiastical institution or ... the household or court of a prelate, monarch or nobleman in a sacred or secular capacity." The persons constituting a chapel might be singers, instrumentalists, and/ or composers. The master of the chapel was expected to produce music for services and festivities, to supervise the musicians, and to maintain the instruments under his care. These posts were prestigious, yet the maestro served at the whim of his ruler or ecclesiastical superior.

Our first composer, the German Hans Leo Hassler, was born in Nuremberg in 1564. He went to Venice and studied with Andrea Gabrieli. He returned to Germany in 1586 and until 1600 was chamber musician to the Fugger banking family in Augsburg, then chamber organist, and finally Kapellmeister at the Saxon court chapel in Dresden. In addition to beautiful works for the church, Hassler wrote numerous madrigals, some in Italian and some, like "Nun Fanget an", in German.

In mid-sixteenth century, the Italian madrigal was a musical setting of secular poetry usually for from four to six voices. Typically, the composers strove to create music which aptly expressed the text both word by word and in overall mood. Composers from northern Europe who studied in Italy brought the principles of madrigal writing back home with them. When they set music to poetry in their native tongue the music took on a somewhat different character but the essentials of word-painting, imitation between voices, and repetition of sections remained. Hassler was foremost among composers who adapted the madrigal to the German vernacular.

Orlando di Lasso also wrote madrigals and other settings of poetry in Italian and German, as well as French chansons. His skill at conveying the meaning of a text was manifest also in his motet and mass writing. The atmosphere of "Surrexit Pastor Bonus" and the mass movements based on it is joyful; the Resurrection itself is portrayed in the rising motif which opens each.

Di Lasso was born Orlande de Lassus at Mons, now in Belgium. As a child, his voice was so beautiful that he was kidnapped more than once to perform in various choirs. At the age of no more than fourteen and perhaps younger, he served the court of the Gonzaga Dukes at Mantua, traveling to Sicily and Milan with one of them. Having absorbed the Italian culture, in his early twenties he was well prepared for his appointment as maestro di cappella of St. John Lateran in Rome in 1553. This church was second in importance only to St. Peter's in Rome, having been built on the site of the first Christian basilica [established by Constantine in the fourth century] and functioning as the seat of archbishops, then and now.

After two years, di Lasso (who preferred the Italian form of his name) returned briefly to his homeland. Shortly thereafter, he went to the ducal court chapel in Munich as a singer; in 1563 he was appointed Kapellmeister and remained there until his death in 1594. Di Lasso continues to be internationally admired for the number and artistry of his works in many genres, almost all vocal.

Tomás Luis de Victoria, or Vittoria, as he was known while at several posts in Rome, was a Spanish singer and organist born at Avila. He wrote exclusively Latin sacred music. He became a priest while in Rome, then returned to Spain as chaplain to the Dowager Empress Maria in Madrid. After her death, he remained at her court as organist until his own death in 1611.

The reverence and awe expressed in most of Vittoria's music is evident in "Dic Nobis Maria", where the first manifestation of the risen Christ is described by his mother after she had gone to visit his tomb. The motet is for two choirs. The composer probably was aware while in Italy of the motets for multiple choirs being written and performed in St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice. There the cathedral's architecture inspired experimentation with different groups of singers and instrumentalists. The music of Vittoria is generally more devotional in character, however, than that of the Venetian masters, who inclined toward a rousing, ceremonial style.

Two of these Venetians were Andrea Gabrieli (c. 1520-1586) and his nephew, Giovanni Gabrieli. The elder Gabrieli, a contemporary of di Lasso, served several German courts including, briefly, Munich. He and di Lasso knew each other there. From 1566 onward A. Gabrieli was organist at St. Marks's in Venice, where a series of gifted maestri di cappellae (including Monteverdi, who held the position for three decades beginning in 1585) encouraged the development of what came to be known as the Venetian style. Andrea's grand compositions in this style influenced his nephew and pupil Giovanni, also an organist. Giovanni, like his uncle, worked with di Lasso for a while at Munich, then was second organist at St. Mark's and succeeded his uncle as first organist upon Andrea's death. Giovanni brought the Venetian style to its high-Renaissance/early-Baroque pinnacle.

As many as four choirs and sets of instruments, stationed in various galleries of the church, would perform a single composition, producing a brilliant effect with fanfares and echoes. These grandiose works are not suitable for a small ensemble so we present two which are somewhat atypical in their intimacy, yet nonetheless exhibit some of the drama of the Venetian style.

One source notes that the Sonata for three violins (here performed with viola in place of the third violin) employs the strings in a singing manner which looks forward to the great era of violin sonatas and concerti by such late Baroque masters as Corelli (1653-1713) and Vivaldi (1675-1744). But approximately a century separates the Venetian use of short, varied motifs, with doubling of the chorus parts, from the technical virtuosity and sweeping lines of the eighteenth century violin music. (Vivaldi was himself the son of a member of the St. Mark's orchestra.)

The motet "O Jesu mi dulcissime" uses a rather poetic text reminiscent of late Italian madrigals, which tended toward more serious emotional expression than those of mid century. The result is a kind of love poem to the infant Jesus, more subdued than many of Giovanni's motets.

Salamone Rossi was born in 1570 probably in Mantua, where he spent his adult life as court musician to the Gonzaga Dukes. He was a violinist, a singer, and a prolific composer of both instrumental and vocal works. His instrumental collections, four from 1607-22, show important innovations like the four-movement sonata which became the norm with middle- and late-Baroque composers.

Rossi's vocal works show some influence from the Venetian school, such as multiple voice parts. In addition to Italian madrigals, there is a unique body of work in his music for the synagogue. As a Jew [he signed his name "Salamone Rossi, Ebreo" (the Hebrew)] he was not always rewarded for his greatly admired musicianship with a salaried position. Further, his religious music was not accorded widespread use because to his Jewish contemporaries it to closely resembled Christian church music. It was published in 1622.

The works in Hebrew include psalms, hymns, and prayers, some like "Al Naharot Bavel" in a straightforward chordal style which starkly emphasizes the words. Psalm 137 is the great lament of the Jews in captivity, also set by many other composers. Rossi's is a somber chant that calls to mind settings of the Lamentations of Jeremiah by several Renaissance figures, especially Tallis.

In the second half of the seventeenth century, English music was dominated by the works of Henry Purcell. His flair for drama shows in both his works for the theatre and those for the church. "Hear our prayer" probably was to have been only the beginning of a longer anthem; it might have continued with more verses from Psalm 102, which offers scope for further expressive writing. As it is, the weeping quality of the music is extraordinary; here is another striking lament, which became a genre unto itself in Baroque opera and was masterfully employed by Handel in some of his "Israel in Egypt" choruses.

Purcell was in the service of the Kings of England from before his voice changed in 1673. He was employed as a singer, builder and "Keeper of instruments", organist, and composer. In 1679 he became organist of Westminster Abbey. In addition to fine anthems for the Anglican Church, operatic works, odes, and welcome songs for the court, he wrote for viols, and later, sonatas after the developing style, for two violins and continuo.

"Laudate Nomen Domini", the short Latin anthem second on our program, is by an earlier Englishman, the Renaissance composer Christopher Tye. We repeat it in English after the Latin, because it is so short. This and other works in Latin by Tye were probably written during the reign of Catholic Mary Tudor.

Tye was "Magister choristarum" (a term then used more often than its English version "master of the choristers") at Ely Cathedral from at least 1543 to 1561. Tye also wrote a significant amount of music for instrumental consorts.

We now come to two works from among Johann Sebastian Bach's compositions at Cöthen in Germany. He was appointed Kapellmeister there in 1717, in the employ of Prince Leopold, who loved music and was himself a violinist. This court was Calvinist, and thus did not cultivate church music, so Bach's duties concerned instrumental music. There poured forth many of the keyboard, string, and orchestral works (such as the Brandenberg concertos) that are so well-known to listeners and students today. Bach remained at Cöthen until 1723.

We play two movements from the fourth of six sonatas Bach wrote at Cöthen. Violin and keyboard are equal partners. Although the first movement is marked "Siciliano", it is not the cheerful pastoral tune usually suggested by that term. It has, rather, a profoundly mournful tone, very similar to that of the sublime violin obligato and aria from the St. Matthew Passion "Erbarme dich", written by Bach a few years later. Albert Sweitzer in his biography of Bach noted that often the composer made everything all right again, so to speak, with a "jolly fugue". In that spirit we omit movements two and three and conclude with the final fugal allegro.

Bach's six glorious suites for unaccompanied cello date from about 1720.

Cantata #131 was most likely composed between 1707 and 1710. (The cantatas are not numbered in order of their chronological composition. Both #131 and #71 are among Bach's earliest cantatas.) Bach took a position at St. Blasius' Church in Muhlhausen in 1707 after his visit to the aging organist in Lubeck, Dietrich Buxtehude. Inspired by his church compositions, Bach wowed his new employer with Cantata #71 "Gott ist mein Konig" and was invited to compose two more cantatas for them even after he left Muhlhausen a year later to become court organist at Weimar.

"Aus der Tiefe" is one of these two cantatas, according to Christoph Wolff's "Johann Sebastian Bach, the Learned Musician". The last of the Psalm settings on our program, it begins with a choral lament and ends with an uplifting fugue.



HAZEL K. CHEILEK, conductor emeritus of the Thomas Jefferson Orchestra, was educated in Cleveland, Ohio at the Case Western Reserve University. She has a Master's Degree from the University of Texas. She studied viola with the world famed William Primrose at the Vienna Academy of Music. After performing professionally with the Philharmonia Hungarica and the chamber ensemble San Pietro of Naples, Italy she decided to devote her talents to teaching. She taught at Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology from its inception until her retirement in July 2001, striving to ensure that these intellectually talented students would also have the opportunity to develop their hearts and souls through the study of music. In 1987 she was named Virginia Teacher of the Year. In 1993 she was presented with the Heidi Castleman Award for excellence in teaching chamber music. She has been on the Advisory Council of the Amateur Chamber Music Players, Inc. Since her retirement she has started a Strings program at Amidon Elementary, an inner city school in Washington DC. The program has grown from an initial enrollment of 15 to 45 students in the 2006-07 school year. She continues to teach privately in her home.

GAM ROSE has performed and recorded with vocal ensembles around the world for over twenty years. His more recent efforts have included increasing emphasis on solo and original work. Washington's Woodley Ensemble, Bach Consort, and National Cathedral Choir have each featured and recorded Mr. Rose's superb artistry.

JIM MOSELEY, oboist, retired from The United States Air Force Band of Washington, DC in 2001. During his tenure with the Air Force, he served as solo English Horn with the Concert Band and was its manager. Prior to that he held additional positions as Director of Operation and Non-Commisioned Officer in Charge of The Air Forces Chamber Players. Originally from Beaumont, Texas, he has his Bachelor of Science degree and Performer's Certificate from Lamar University and his Masters of Music from The Catholic University. Since his retirement, he freelances in the Metropolitan area of Washington and teaches privately. He currently resides in Ashburn, Virginia with his wife, Rebecca.

MAURICE SINGER was born in Antwerp, Belgium. At nine he came to New York City and attended school there. He graduated from City College of New York with a B.A. in Liberal Arts. While there he sang in a number of choruses, large and small, including the Cantata Singers under Thomas Dunn. He attended the Mannes College of Music for 2 years before transferring to study for the Cantorate at the Jewish Theological Seminary. His 30 year plus career has taken him up and down the Eastern Seaboard, with positions in Connecticut, New Jersey, Massachussets, and finally Washington, DC. Recently retired, he has resumed singing in choruses, performing with the Eldebrook Opera company, the National Philharmonic Chorale, and The American University Chorale. Mr. Singer lives in DC. with his wife, Barbara Taylor.

DOUGLAS WOLTERS performs in metropolitan Washington on modern and baroque cello as well as on viola da gamba. The Washington Post recently praised Mr. Wolters as "one of the finest continuo cellists in the area." In addition to serving as principal cellist of The Bach Sinfonia and the Gettysburg Chamber Orchestra, Mr. Wolters collaborates in mixed media events with poets, dancers, and other artists. Mr. Wolters has appeared in recitals at Alice Tully Hall in New York, and in Washington, DC at the Phillips Collection, the Corcoran Gallery, and the Smithsonian Institution with the Smithsonian Chamber Players. Mr. Wolters has recorded for Orion and Northeastern. A graduate of New England Conservatory, Mr. Wolters studied cello with Mihaly Virizlay and viola da gamba with Gian Lyman Silbiger. When not performing, he teaches stringed instruments in the Fairfax County school system and maintains a private studio.

The AD HOC Singers
Louise Lee, Director
Soprano I Alto Bass
Hellen Gelband Louise Bedichek Martin Bernstein
Emilia Guevara Jenny Bland Joe Kolinski
Karen Lee Beth Underkoffler Jim McElfish
Julie Mack Maurice Singer
Tenor Jon Westergaard
Soprano II Brent Chivers Peter Wolfe
Nancy Kolinski
Norma Meyer Tenor II/Baritone
Margaret Smith Tim Burr

Louise Lee is a graduate of Smith College and Indiana University, where she received a Master of Music degree in organ performance, studying with Oswald Ragatz. Ms. Lee performs frequently as a piano accompanist. She is organist at Arlington Forest United Methodist Church. Ms. Lee has directed the Ad Hoc Singers since she founded the group in 1975.

The Ad Hoc Singers, an amateur chamber chorus devoted to traditional choral literature from the fifteenth through the twentieth centuries, has been in existence under the direction of Louise Lee since 1975. They perform regularly at churches and other locations throughout the area. Good sight readers interested in joining the group should call 703-538-2557 to set up an audition, or speak with Ms. Lee after the concert.

We'd like to thank St. Peter's Episcopal Church for the use of their sanctuary and facilities for this concert.

Thank you to Emilia Guevara and Karen Lee for their work on the program and the flyers,
and thank you to Julie Mack and Joe Titlebaum for transporting the harpsichord.

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